20th Century Africa
After World War I, Nationalists within Africa focused on the 5th point of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 pts.  5th Point:  Called for an impartial adjustment of all colonial claims.  Many in Africa believed that this would mean African colonies would be free sooner than later.

The invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 upset many Africans because the League of Nations did not protect them from Italy.  The League of Nations was designed to protect the weak from the strong.  During World War II many African soldiers fought for their mother countries.  After WW II, many African colonies were on the fast track to independence.  Colonialism was not very attractive to Europe and the world.  With the exception of France, European nations started to move their colonies to self government.  People within these colonies became more aggressive about freedom from Europe.  They believed that this process was not happening fast enough.

Algeria (1954-1962)
The war for Independence lasted between the years of 1954-1962.  France was unwilling to release their colonies from their grasp all over the world.  The French were determined to keep Algeria, they just lost their Vietnamese colony.  The French only had colonies in North Africa and the Middle East.  None of these colonies liked French rule.

Vitenam and Algeria were similar when dealing with France.  Both colonies used the same tactics against France:

Guerilla Warfare
Avoid Direct Contact
Attack Civilian and Military Targets
Have women help

The French used the same tactics in both places.  In both places they were not successful. The used:

Napalm
More Troops
Internment Camps
Torture

France granted Morocco and Tunisia to focus solely on Algeria. The plan backfired, both new nations helped and hid freedom fighters for Algeria.  This was similar to Vienam.  The countries of Laos and Cambodia claimed they were neutral, however they were helping the rebels secretly.

There were many groups that pushed for self rule in Algeria.  The FLN was the aggressive movement that pushed for violent independence.  Many other groups faded away or just merged with the FLN.  Charles DeGaulle realized by 1960 France could not win. He spent the remaining years negotiating a dignified withdrawal

Kenya
Following WW I, the British provided cheap land to their veterans.  Many British veterans jumped on the chance to own cheap land in a warm exotic place.  They would own more land than they would be able to in England. The British population tripled because of this pronouncement.

During WW II, many Kenyans fought for the British.  The British acknowledged this sacrifice and gave Kenyans the ability to participate in government in Kenya.  By the early 1950’s they were able to gain representation in the Kenyan government holding up to 8 seats.

The Mau Mau uprising derailed the peaceful progression in Kenya.  The Mau Mau were made up of members of the Kikuyu Tribe.  The Mau Mau uprising was a call for more rapid change in Kenya.  The situation intensified when the British rounded up thousands of Kikuyu and placed them in “protected villages.”  The British found within Kenya were scared to live there and many fled the country to save their lives. The Mau Mau uprising lead to the total independence of Kenya by 1963

Since the emergence of South Africa in 1910, a system of segregation has been part of the country.  After WW II and the 1950’s the National Party increased their segregation policies.  Jobs were restricted, interracial sexual relations and marriage were enforced.  The ability to join unions to gain better jobs was denied too.  Two of the more controversial laws were forced relocation and having to carry identification papers at all times.


Struggles in the 1970’s saw riots and protests.  The government would call for a state of emergency.  Violence against students and other group became more intense and the world was witness to this.  Apartheid was being questioned within the continent of Africa and the international world.


South Africa
Originally born Rolihlahla Mandela, he received the name Nelson from a teacher in grade school.  Nelson’s father died and he was under the care of this uncle within his tribe.  He lived a good life, and attended the University College of Fort Hare, he studied law and was an excellent student.

After college, he worked in a law firm and joined the ANC.  He started to side with the more militant group of the ANC.  Mandela drew up boycotts, strikes, and other types of civil disobedience.  In 1952 Mandela urged Africans to refuse to comply with laws.  By the 1960’s the ANC was involved with sabotage and destruction.
He was put on trial, but found not guilty, however he did have to serve 5 years for other charges.  While in prison, the government found new evidence and then found Mandela guilty for sabotage.

Mandela was seen as the symbol of the movement.  The people of South Africa would keep his spirit alive.  During his prison stay, Mandela was given the opportunity to be released if he renounced violence.  Mandela would only accept a release unconditionally.  This inspired the people, that he was willing to stay in jail rather than submit to the government and the wrongs of apartheid.