From class you have already realized that the Mongols were very angry aggressive people. Living in one of the world's worst places does that to you. There are 5 advantages the Mongols held over the world.
1. Calvary (Arrow Riders)
The Arrow Riders were the best riders the earth has ever seen. Most people use cavalry to weaken and finish off enemies in battle. The Mongols were different. The Arrow Riders were the main body of the Mongol war machine. The Mongols invented all the ways to kill and battle from the top of a horse.
Children would know how to ride in a saddle before they could run. The dogs were taught to ride on the hind quarters of the horses. They would then jump off the horse to retrieve the prey that their master just killed. The sport of polo was invented by the Mongols.
The entire Mongol population could move at a moment's notice. All aspects of society were geared to travel and war. Women would bring up the rear with the wagons for the dead and wounded. They would also feed the animals except for the horses. Only the men were permitted to feed the horses.
The mobility of the Mongol empire was impressive for their ability to cover large distances and their ability to track down enemies until they were killed. Riders would use the highway system that covered the entire continent of Asia!! They would ride with a pack of horses. Once they exhausted all of the horses, there was horse corals located all about the empire (gas stations for a lack of a better term). A rider would leave his horse and use 4 or 5 fresh horses to continue their mission.
The focus of the riders was also impressive. They would ride for days only resting long enough to go to the bathroom and possibly eat. When they were in a bigger rush, they would drink the blood of their horse just for the nourishment. It is not like they were vampires, only a small amount was taken to keep them alert and functional.
The Mongols were feared for numerous reasons. For one thing, they had a huge chip on their shoulders because of where they grew up. They felt the world owed them, and they took this out on the world. Torture and death would be guaranteed for anybody that opposed them. This didn't mean the men that they battled, but the entire tribe. Women, children, the old, crippled, priests, everyone would be attacked.
Mongols felt that men hunt and kill. Being a farmer was considered the lowest thing a man could do. In their opinion, they were doing them a favor by killing them because they weren't doing what they should be doing.
Mongols were very strong people. Living in the Gobi desert made them very hard. You won't find any fat on a Mongol. Children were taught hand-to-hand combat at a very early age. By the time they were warriors; they could torture and kill enemies with their bare hands.
Naturally they were strong. An example of this was their bows. Today, just like back then, a bow has a pull weight. Pull weight is the amount of strength an archer needs to pull the bow fully back. Most adult men today average a pull of anywhere between 75 to 90 pounds. Scientist have found bow from this era that had a pull of nearly 160 pounds!!!
Mongols as a society were incredibly focused. All parts of society were directed towards war, conquest, and expansion. The above four examples show how dedicated they were to doing this. Mongols would do what other armies would not imagine doing. An example is in Russia where winter temperatures can drop below 60 degrees. Mongols would openly march and attack in this weather because they knew the enemy would never dream of doing this.
With these five advantages, how did the Mongols eventually lose? There are two important reasons why they lost:
1. Small Population
Mongols felt superior to everyone around them. They felt they were the elite humans. When it came down to reproduction, the Mongols were only allowed to mate with other Mongols. Without a large population base, the amount of land that they conquered could not be controlled.
2. Poor Administrative Skills
The Mongol arrogance also hurt them in this area. Mongols would not let conquered people participate in any form of government. Also, the Mongols were very cruel even after a battle. It stems again from the chip on their shoulder. Hatred instead of tolerance brewed through the territories that were controlled by the Mongols. The chance to kill and rebel was a constant threat for the Mongols to deal with.
There two combinations, along with the amount of land that they conquered, led to their downfall. They just couldn't control that much land with so many people hating them.